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«Сравнительное конституционное обозрение»: научный журнал
№5 (120) 2017

Шустров Дмитрий Германович. Essentia constitutionis: Конституция Российской Федерации в фокусе теорий конституции XX–XXI веков. Часть 2

Шустров Дмитрий Германович – кандидат юридических наук, доцент кафедры конституционного и муниципального права юридического факультета Московского государственного университета имени М.В.Ломоносова, Москва, Россия (e-mail: dg-shustrov@mail.ru).

DOI: 10.21128/1812-7126-2017-5-78-93

Аннотация. Природа и сущность конституции являются объектом исследования многих социальных дисциплин. Ею интересуется не только юриспруденция, но и история, политология, социология, философия, экономика и другие науки. Исследованием конституции занимается прежде всего правовая наука, а в её рамках – наука конституционного права, которая изучает конституцию как догматически – в рамках конституционного права, так и теоретически – в рамках учения о конституции. В данной статье конституция исследуется в рамках научной программы учения о конституции – в теоретическом аспекте. За века накопилось множество ответов на данный вопрос, и цель данной статьи состоит в представлении основных теорий сущности конституции, исследовании зарождения и динамики теоретических взглядов на сущность конституции, имевших место в истории науки конституционного права. Автор анализирует основные теории сущности конституции, возникшие в XX–XXI веках: экономическую теорию; теорию оригинальных и производных конституций и конституционных заимствований; теорию конституции как культуры; теорию конституционного патриотизма; теорию конституционализма за пределами государства. А также отражение этих теорий в тексте, смысле и практике применения Конституции Российской Федерации.

Ключевые слова: сущность конституции; теория конституции; экономическая теория конституции; конституционные заимствования; конституционная культура; конституционный патриотизм; конституционализм за пределами государства; Конституция РФ 1993 года.

Библиографическое описание: Шустров Д. Essentia constitutionis: Конституция Российской Федерации в фокусе теорий конституции XX–XXI веков. Часть 2 // Сравнительное конституционное обозрение. 2017. №5. С.78–93.


Essentia constitutionis: The Constitution of the Russian Federation in the focus of constitutional theories of the 20th and 21st centuries

Part 2

Dmitry Shustrov - Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in Law; Associate Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Moscow, Russia (e-mail: dg-shustrov@mail.ru).

Abstract. The Constitution as a phenomenon is studied not only in the field of jurisprudence, but also in those of history, political science, sociology, philosophy, economic sciences, and other social disciplines. Within jurisprudence, the constitution is the object of constitutional law, and in this framework a constitution is treated either dogmatically in strictly legal terns, or theoretically within the framework of constitutional theory. This article presents the most significant theories on the essence of constitutions through the 20th and 21st centuries. Among the surveyed theories are the normative theory, which regards the constitution as the highest norm of positive law, and the theory of integration, in which the constitution is viewed as the legal order of the process of state integration. The theory of the living constitution presupposes that the constitution develops over time and adapts to new circumstances without being formally changed. According to the axiological theory, the constitution is a system and a hierarchy of values. The liberal theory of defines a constitution as aiming to restrain power and guarantee human freedom. The theory of constitutional fear declares that constitutions appear as a result of previous fears that existed in society and are intended to release citizens from them by putting these fears to rest. The ontological theory of the constitution analyzes the correlation between the constitution and reality, and tries to answer the question of the relationship between constitutional norms and constitutional practices. The theory of constitutional ideals presupposes that the constitution embodies a certain ideal of the state, meaning an ideal state structure according to the standpoint of the authors of the constitution. The author leads the reader through this historical and theoretical maze in order to reflect on the impact that the abovementioned theories had on shaping the text, spirit, meaning, and practice of the existing Russian Constitution.

Keywords: essence of constitution; theory of constitution; integration through constitution; liberal theory of constitution; constitutional values; living constitution; constitutional ideal; constitutional fears; 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Citation: Shustrov D. (2017) Essentia constitutionis: Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii v fokuse teoriy konstitutsii XX–XXI vekov. Chast' 2 [Essentia constitutionis: The Constitution of the Russian Federation in the focus of constitutional theories of the 20th and 21st centuries. Part 2]. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, no.5, pp.78–93. (In Russian).

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